乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信,英国首相特雷莎

乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信,英国首相特雷莎

原标题:双语||爱新觉罗·弘历圣上给United Kingdom沙皇George三世的信(中国和东瀛语)

Prime Minister’s Commons statement on triggering Article 50

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新近,英帝国首相Trey莎·梅签定历史性信函,运行巴塞罗那左券第50条(Article
50),正式开发银行“脱欧”程序。梅姨签名称叫证:

奉天承运,太岁敕谕,英Geely太岁知悉:

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咨尔国君,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了点不清礼品,忠心可嘉)。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见主公恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。全部赍到表贡之正职和副职使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣辅导瞻觐(让大臣指导他们敬重天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠合赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等第六百货余人,虽今后京,朕亦优加嘉奖,俾得普沾恩惠,一视同仁(已经回来比什凯克珠山的管船役使等600多个人纵然未有来京,小编也人己一视给与优厚表彰,让我们都沾沾光)。**

Thank you Mr Speaker.

至尔国君表内恳请派一尔国之人住居天朝,照顾尔国购销一节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。向来西洋多个国家有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来以往,即遵用天朝服色,安放堂内,永久不准复归国内,此系天朝定制,想尔主公亦所知悉。今尔皇帝欲求派一尔国之人居住京城,既不能够若来京当差之西美国人,在京居住不归本国,又不足听其来往,常通音讯,实为无用之事。且天朝所管地点至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆要求,行为举止出入,俱有自然体制,从无听其大肆之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服饰殊制,无地可以安放。若必似来京当差之西塞尔维亚人,令其一律改易服装,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(就算小编天朝也派人常住你国,或许你国也不允许呢?)?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔圣上恳请派人留京,焉能一一听许?是那件事断难准行。岂会因尔圣上一个人之请,以致更张天朝百多年法度(无法因为天皇你一人之请,将天朝一百余年的本分给废了)。

Today the government acts onthe democratic will[民主意愿]of the
British people. And it acts, too, on the clear and convincing position
of this House.

若云尔君王为关照买卖起见,则尔国人在塔那那利佛贸易非止12日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为着关照买卖起见,那您国人在圣Pedro苏拉交易也不是一天二日了,天朝原来对经纪人就从不重视)。即如从前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国屡屡遣使来朝,亦曾以照顾贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像在此之前葡萄牙共和国、意国几国一些次派人来,也早就以照应贸易的名义请小编照管。天朝看他俩挺真诚的,也不便于,就多加体恤)。凡遇这个国家等贸易之事,无不照拂周备。前次山西商贾吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两个,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为偿还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想那件事尔国亦闻知矣,国外又何须派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距金斯敦贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照望耶(何况你们派人驻京,京城距卡托维兹基本上30000里,他怎么能照应到?)?**若云敬慕天朝,欲其观习训导,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各差异样。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不可能模拟中中原人民共和国,即学会亦属无效**。

A few minutes ago inBrussels[公州],the United Kingdom’s
Permanent Representative to the EU
[英常驻欧洲结盟代表]handed a letter
tothe President of the European Council[欧洲缔盟理事委员会主持人]on my behalf,
confirming the government’s decision to invokeArticle 50 of the Treaty
on European Union
[《圣菲波哥伦比亚大学契约》第50条].

天朝扶有到处,惟三绝韦编,办理行政事务,希世之珍,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地点那么大,笔者想的是怎么着努力,至于稀世宝物啥的自家并不看得十分重)。尔国君此番赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你哟此番进贡了比很多赠品,念你特别真诚大老远献来了,小编才特意下旨让有关单位收了)。**实则天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加大世界,万国来朝,通过水田和旱地两路给作者进贡,咱什么贵重玩意儿都不缺,那个你的使节都是亲眼见过的)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔主公所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(我把话都挑明了,现令让您国使者登时布置回国行程)**尔圣上惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,分享太平之福(国君你应当很好地通晓小编的野趣,对天朝要热的冒汗诚归附,发誓永世对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩泽就能够施予你们国家,一起建设筑组织和社会)。除正副使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣回国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔皇帝文绮女士珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器材诸珍(除了正职和副职使臣以下一干人等都按等第赏给种种物件,因为你国使者登时将在回国,笔者又刻意下令,除了按常规赏给您的有意思意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器械等有趣意儿若干),另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都以自身对您们的酷爱)

The Article 50 process is now underway. Andin accordance withthe
wishes of the British people, the United Kingdom is leaving the European
Union.

明知故犯敕谕。**——**《清实录》

This is an historic moment from whichthere can be no turning
back.
Britain is leaving the European Union. We are going to make our
own decisions and our own laws. We are going to take control of the
things that matter most to us. And we are going to take this opportunity
to build a stronger, fairer Britain – a country that our children and
grandchildren are proud to call home. That is our ambition and our
opportunity. That is what this government is determined to do.

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Mr Speaker, at moments like these –great turning pointsin our national
story – the choices we make define the character of our nation. We can
choose to say the task ahead is too great. We can choose to turn our
face to the past and believe it can’t be done. Or we can look forward
with optimism and hope – and to believe inthe enduring
power
[从始至终力量]of the British spirit.

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

I choose to believe in Britain and that our best dayslie ahead. And I
do so because I am confident that we have the vision and the plan to use
this moment to build a better Britain. For leaving the European Union
presents us with a unique opportunity. It is this generation’s chance
toshape a brighter futurefor our country. A chance to step back and
ask ourselves what kind of country we want to be.

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My answer is clear. I want the United Kingdom to emerge from this period
of changestronger,fairer, more united and more outward-lookingthan
ever before. I want us to be asecure, prosperous, tolerantcountry –
amagnet[磁铁;吸铁石]for international talent and a home to the
pioneers and innovators who will shape the world ahead.

You, O King, live beyond the confines of
many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of
the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission
respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and
paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show
your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country’s
produce.

I want us to be a trulyGlobal Britain澳门新莆京娱乐网站 ,– the best friend and neighbour
to our European partners, but a country that reaches beyond the borders
of Europe too. A country that goes out into the world to build
relationships with old friends and new allies alike.

I have perused your memorial: the earnest
terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part,
which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your
Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and
tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be
introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have
entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also
caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred
of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that
they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

And that is why I haveset out a clear and ambitious planfor the
negotiations ahead. It is a plan for a new deep and special partnership
between Britain and the European Union.A partnership of values. A
partnership of interests. A partnership based on co-operation in areas
such as security and economic affairs
. Anda partnership that works in
the best interests of the United Kingdom, the European Union and the
wider world
.

As to your entreaty to send one of your
nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of
your country’s trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage
of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that
Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at
Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly
confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home.
You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed
Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of
European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could
he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege
of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by
his residence in our midst.

Because perhaps now more than ever, the world needs
theliberal,democraticvalues of Europe – values that this United
Kingdom shares. And that is why, while we are leaving the institutions
of the European Union, we are not leaving Europe.We will remain a close
friend and ally
.We will be a committed partner[忠诚的同伙]. We will
play our part to ensure that Europe is able toproject its
values
anddefend itself from security
threats
[保证自身免受安全威逼]. And we will do all that we can to help
the European Union prosper and succeed.

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses
vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are
provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to
their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would
be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that
your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress
differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to
bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans
permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China,
but, it has never been our dynasty’s wish to force people to do things
unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to
reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the
requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides
your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how
could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can
our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette,
established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual
views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your
country’s trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton
for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our
hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar
requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with
favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with
China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu
Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance
the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to
punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance
this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking
is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what
possible control could any British representative exercise?

So Mr Speaker, in the letter that has been delivered toPresident
Tusk
today – copies of which I have placed in the library of the House
– I have been clear that the deep and special partnership we seek is
inthe best interests ofthe United Kingdom and of the European Union
too.

If you assert that your reverence for Our
Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation,
our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that,
even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our
civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs
to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become,
nothing would be gained thereby.

I have been clear that we will work constructively – in a spirit of
sincereco-operation– to bring this partnership into being. And I have
been clear that we should seek to agree the terms of this future
partnership alongside those of our withdrawal, within the next 2 years.

Swaying the wide world, I have but one
aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the
duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I
have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be
accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted
you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has
penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations
have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador
can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects
strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures.
This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my
Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result
in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and
have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward
journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display
even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual
submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your
country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an
inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King,
valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such
occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise
enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender
goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

I am ambitious for Britain. And the objectives I have set out for these
negotiations remain. We will deliver certainty wherever possible so that
business, the public sector and everybody else has as much clarity as we
can provide as we move through the process. It is why, tomorrow, we will
publish aWhite Paperconfirming our plans to convert the ‘acquis
into British law, so that everyone will know where they stand.

You, O King, from afar have yearned after
the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into
touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea
bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit
of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded
it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring
you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been
manifested.

And it is why I have been clear that the government will put the final
deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a vote in bothHouses
of Parliament
before itcomes into force. We will take control of our
own laws and bring an end to thejurisdiction[1]of the European Court
of Justice in Britain. Leaving the European Union will mean that our
laws will be made
inWestminster,Edinburgh,CardiffandBelfast. And those
laws will be interpreted by judges not inLuxembourg, but in courts
across this country.

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my
Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his
proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be
entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own
country’s barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our
Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years,
although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance
and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need
to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own
produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire
produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to
yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign
hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your
wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our
beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which
completely fail to recognise the Throne’s principle to “treat strangers
from afar with indulgence,” and to exercise a pacifying control over
barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the
myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all.
Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations,
following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further
impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with
easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of
your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do
I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial
Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your
Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the
mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy’s return he may fail
to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in
lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each
question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my
meaning….

[1]jurisdiction[.dʒʊərɪs’dɪkʃ(ə)n]

(3) Your request for a small island near
Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises
from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs
nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever
called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every
inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the
strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and
far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to
which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only
barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire:
supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and
beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading
purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant
infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be
entertained.

the authority of a court or official organization to make decisions and
judgments 司法权;管辖权;审判权

(4) The next request, for a small site in
the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge
or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their
movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the
barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to
them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to
encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality…. If
these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur
between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would
militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From
every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in
force should continue unchanged….

The court has no jurisdiction in/over cases of this kind.

(7) Regarding your nation’s worship of
the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European
nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise
rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code,
which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads
of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines.
Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to
hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the
limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating
their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most
strict, and your Ambassador’s request that barbarians shall be given
full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly
unreasonable.

该法庭无权审判此类案件。

It may be, O King, that the above
proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own
responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our
dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you
expressed these wild ideas and hopes…. If, after the receipt of this
explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your
subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang
and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the
ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the
local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey
the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants
will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will
be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants
will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not
warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special
mandate!

We will strengthen the Union of the 4 nations thatcompriseour United
Kingdom. We will negotiate as one United Kingdom, taking account of the
specific interests of every nation and region of the UK and when it
comes to the powers that we will take back from Europe, we will consult
fully on which powers shouldreside inWestminster and which should be
passed on tothe devolved administrations.

From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals
and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp.
322-­331.

But Mr Speaker, no decisions currently taken by the devolved
administrations will be removed from them. And it is the expectation of
the government that the devolved administrations
inScotland,WalesandNorthern Irelandwill see a significant
increase in theirdecision-making poweras a result of this process.

正文转自:译介与文化传播回来天涯论坛,查看越来越多

We want to maintain the common travel area withthe Republic of
Ireland
. There should be no return to the borders of the past. We will
control immigration so that we continue to attract the brightest and the
best to work or study in Britain, but manage the process properly so
that our immigration system serves the national interest.

小编:

We seek to guarantee the rights ofEU citizens[欧洲联盟公民]who are
already living in Britain, and the rights ofBritish
nationals
[大不列颠及英格兰联合王国百姓]in other member states as early as we can. That is
set out very clearly in the letter as an early priority for the talks
ahead. We will ensure that workers’ rights are fully protected and
maintained.Indeed, under my leadership,not only will the government
protect the rights of workers, we will build on them
.

We will pursue aboldandambitiousfree trade agreement with the
European Union that allows for the freest possible trade in goods and
services between Britain and the EU’s member states; that gives British
companiesthe maximum freedomto trade with and operate within European
markets; and that lets European businesses do the same in Britain.

Because European leaders have said many times that we cannot ‘cherry
pick
[2]’ and remain members of the single market without accepting
the 4 freedoms that are indivisible. We respect that position. And as
accepting those freedomsis incompatible with[和…不相容的]the
democratically expressed will of the British people, we will no longer
be members of the single market.

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